is the process of arriving at mutual satisfaction through
discussion and bargaining. Managers negotiate to settle
differences, vary agreements or terms, or to value commodities
or services. Although there is a large area of overlap with
‘cooperation’, as different interests emerge among
‘cooperators’, negotiation is required to resolve conflict.
negotiating to succeed, each party must genuinely desire
agreement, which can be expressed as a lasting contract.
Agreement that can not be applied is useless. Solutions must be
viable or the negotiators – who are only representatives of an
interest – will lose their credibility and authority, and lack
of lasting agreement will result. Negotiators have to perform
several skilled functions. They must be able to plan in the
knowledge that they may not be allowed to proceed in the
sequence they desire.
relating to each point of the negotiation must be prepared as if
the other parties did not exist. Every argument should be
complete. Negotiators must be flexible enough to argue cases in
context and according to the priority given them by the other
negotiators understand how to resolve conflict. Denying the
conflict antagonize the opponent. Accommodation is dangerous –
it is the slippery slope to appeasement and leads to submission.
Domineering behavior intensifies resistance.
There is no
single comprehensive theory governing the complex practice of
negotiation, although some of the world’s foremost business
education establishments – notably Harvard – devote much effort
to developing strategies to help negotiators achieve positive
three major types of negotiations namely ‘positional’,
principled’ and ‘situational’ negotiation.
distinctions are less clear in practice. For example,
situational negotiation usually takes place before both
positional and principled negotiation.
negotiation is the
traditional form of negotiation. Participants often work to
tight mandate. If their positions afford no compromise, the
result will be deadlock. Success is usually achieved only after
all aspects of opposing positions have been explored to try to
find common ground.
examples include union/management bargaining, disputes between
customers and suppliers and boundary or territorial
negotiation is the
‘Harvard Model’ whereby negotiators are encouraged to search for
the underlying principles which support ‘positions’.
This is a
more relaxed and creative process for the negotiator, who ids
briefed to deliver objectives, not solutions. The will to
succeed is often greater than in positional negotiating, because
both parties feel a sense of achievement rather than loss.
negotiation degenerates into positional negotiation or deadlock
if emotions are allowed to cloud the issues at stake.
usually takes place before both
positional and principled negotiation in the form of leaks to
the press or via the grapevine. It is an indirect and
pre-emptive form of negotiation. Sending messages via a third
party before a meeting can prevent wasting time. Deadlock can be
avoided and solutions quickly found.
The art of
negotiation is to avoid reaching a fixed position too quickly.
Well before the meeting, messages should be exchanged.
should then follow a well-prepared, logical sequence:
Be sociable with the other party
and set a tension-free atmosphere.
Confirm both parties’ broad
objectives and feelings. Assess any differences between
Review proceedings leading up to
the present negotiation. If you have different interpretations
of the ‘facts’, iron out the differences.
Specify in detail what you want
to resolve, if possible starting with an issue on which
agreement is probable. Link issues if advantageous. Specify if
one issue can be settled only if another is also resolved.
Start by asking for what you
want. Both parties want as much as they can get, but both must
accept that goals may have to be modified. Conflict should not
be avoided – it ventilates the issues and leads to settlements.
Give, to get something in
return, but make sure you give points at a consistent rate. If
compromising becomes difficult, go ‘situational’, exchanging
messages outside the meeting ground through others.
Agree on what you have agreed.’
Unless agreement is fully understood by both parties the
settlement will not last.
regularly organizes public workshops and conduct
in-house training sessions on “Negotiation Skills”
wherein all above materials are covered through a
combination of lecture, discussions, exercises, case
studies and role plays.
For Further information
Ms. Dwi Lia Indriani
Phone: (+62-21) 745-2275, 745-1948
Fax: (+62-21) 745-2049