To meet the many
demands of performing their functions, managers assume multiple
roles. A role is an organized set of behaviors.
Henry Mintzberg has identified ten roles common to the work of all managers. The
ten roles are divided into three groups: interpersonal,
informational, and decisional.
informational roles link all managerial work together. The
interpersonal roles ensure that information is provided.
The decisional roles make significant use of the
The performance of
managerial roles and the requirements of these roles can be played at different times by the same manager and to different
degrees depending on the level and function of management. The
ten roles are described individually, but they form an
interpersonal roles are primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships.
In the figurehead
manager represents the organization in all matters of formality. The top level manager represents the company legally and
socially to those outside of the organization. The supervisor
represents the work group to higher management and higher
management to the work group.
In the liaison
role, the manger interacts with peers and people outside the organization. The top level manager uses the liaison role to
gain favors and information, while the supervisor uses it to
maintain the routine flow of work.
The leader role
defines the relationships between the manger and employees.
relationships with people in the interpersonal roles place the
manager in a unique position to get information.
Thus, the three
informational roles are primarily concerned with the information
aspects of managerial work. In the monitor role, the manager
receives and collects information. In the role of disseminator,
the manager transmits special information into the organization.
The top level manager receives and transmits more information
from people outside the organization than the supervisor.
In the role of
spokesperson, the manager disseminates the organization's
information into its environment. Thus, the top level manager is
seen as an industry expert, while the supervisor is seen as a
unit or departmental expert.
The unique access
to information places the manager at the center of
organizational decision making.
There are four
decisional roles. In the entrepreneur role, the manager
initiates change. In the disturbance handler role, the manger
deals with threats to the organization. In the resource
allocator role, the manager chooses where the organization will
expend its efforts. In the negotiator role, the manager
negotiates on behalf of the organization. The top level manager
makes the decisions about the organization as a whole, while the
supervisor makes decisions about his or her particular work
performs these managerial roles but with different emphasis than
higher managers. Supervisory management is more focused and
short-term in outlook.
figurehead role becomes less significant and the disturbance
handler and negotiator roles increase in importance for the
permeates all activities, the leader role is among the most
important of all roles at all levels of management.